Lesvos is an island with age-long history. It was the bone of contention for many conquerors. It met times of bloom and suffered a lot of catastrophes.
The archaeological sites, historic monuments, museums and towns, all reveal incidents that stigmatized the island.
According to mythology, the first settler of the island was Makaras, the son of God Sun. The most important towns of the island were named after his children.
Historic sources report that Lesvos was first inhabit around 3200 – 2400 BC. The settlement of Thermes is created then, with walls, squares and roads. Excavations brought into light stone tools and vessels from this period.
Two other settlements are established close to Thermi during the Post Copper Age. In 1200BC life stopped abruptly from unknown causes. The archaeological findings reveal the existence of a civilization similar to Mycenaec.
Around 1100BC Eolis come to the island. During this period are established six ancient towns: Mytilana, Mithymna, Eresos, Antissa, Pyrra and Arisvi. Remains of these towns exist until our days.
The island is started to bloom spiritually. At the end of the 8th BC and the beginnings of the 7th century, Lesvos gave birth to three important personalities of art and literature. Arionas the citharoedus, Alkeos the poet and Sapfo the great lyric poetess.
All towns of Lesvos participated to the war and formed the ancient world. They took part to the Persian wars as and Peloponesean and suffered a lot of catastrophes.
In 84BC Romans conquered Lesvos and gave residents some privileges. The island then flourished at all fields. Some of the most important monuments were built then like the Aqueduct of Moria, the Theater and the Bethel of Thermia Artemide.
In Byzantine times the island was divided into two bishoprics. That of Mytilene and of Mithymna.
At this period many churches were built as and new settlement and towns. Like Mytilini, Eresos, Molyvos and Kalloni. The famous castles of Lesvos were built then in Mytilini, Avgerinis and Molyvos.
During Byzantine times the island was the land of banishment for great personalities like Irene the Athenean and Constantine Monomachos.
In 1354 the emperor Ioannis Paleologos gave Lesvos to his Genevian son in law Fragiskos Gatelouzos as a marriage portion. The dynasty of Gatelouzi stayed in the island until 1462, when Turkish took it.
Lesvos then suffered a lot of catastrophes. Most residents left the island looking for better living conditions.
In 1817 the first Philics came to the island. Residents took part in the war for independence and suffered a lot of catastrophes. Most of them were even killed.
In 1912 Lesvos was adjusted to Greece.