The walls of Kos’ ancient town were built in the beginnings of the 4th BC in order to protect residents from pirate invasions.
The part of these walls saved until our days impresses for its construction. It has a thickness that reaches 6 to 8m. To build it they used two huge blocks. The first, parts of which the visitor can see today, extended to the town’s port. The second was distinct from the first as it ended in the port’s Thermes.
The town of Kos was built in the southwest end of the island. According to historic sources it was named Astipalea and flourished in the 6th BC.
In the 4th BC after a catastrophic earthquake, residents built a new town in the northwest part of the island. From the findings it seems that it was a town with advanced draining and water supplying system. It had an embattled port and strong walls parts of which are saved in good condition.
The remains of the ancient town are separated in 4 zones of excavations. The port’s zone, the west, the east and the central zone. Excavations brought into light important findings.
Kos’ Market was one of the biggest in the entire ancient world. Parts of the north, east and west side, are saved.
According to recent excavations it is believed that the town’s south end reached up to the Altar of Dionysos. It has an interior yard and was surrounded by arcades with fluted pillars. The market’s north wall was the fortified yard of the town.
The remains of Kos’ Ancient Conservatoire were discovered in 1929.
It is located in the west-excavating zone of the ancient town. It has nine marble stages that combined the first class. Afterwards there was a diazoma that separated the rest-whitewashed stages. Under these stages were dome-shaped rooms with statues, exhibited in the island’s Archaeological museum.
Cultural exhibitions are organized in the Ancient Conservatoire.
The ancient Stadium was built at the end of the 4th BC. Pillars saved today combine harmoniously Ion with Doric style. The length of the building is 180m and its width 30m.
HELLENISTIC TIME’S GYMNASIUM
Excavations in the west zone brought into light important ancient buildings. The remains of the Ancient Gymnasium were found 1,5m under the level of the ground. There are 17 pillars made from white marble, which were reconstructed in a row heading from the NE to the SW. It is believed that the entire gymnasium has a length of 180m and a width of 90m.
The remains of Dionysos’ altar are located in the northwest part of Casa Romana. It was built in the middle of 2nd BC and is kept in a good condition. The altar is made from white and blue-gray marble and it is consisted of two parts. The main altar and the ramp, through which people entered.
It is a roman style mansion built on the remains of a previous hellenistic style residence. It is dated from the beginnings of the 3rd BC. It is one of the most important sites in the central excavating zone of the ancient town. It has 36 rooms. In most of these are saved mosaic floors and murals.
RESIDENCE OF EUROPE'S GRAB
This structure was built in the middle of the 2nd BC and was named after a mosaic. It is showing Europe naked grabbed by a bull, which according to mythology is Zeus transformed. In front of the bull is standing Love, holding a torch. It is in the west zone of antiquities in Kos.