Kalymnos has a long and important historic route.
As first settlers of the island are reported Kares, who came in the island from Minor Asia in the beginnings of geometrical age.
During 1150-850 Eolis and later Dorians inhabited the island. Important monuments of this period are the remains of god Apollo’s temple.
Kalymnos took part in the campaign of Troy with the kings Fidippos and Antifantos. Homer in Iliad is mentioning “Kalindes Islands”. It is a complex of islands Kalymnos, Kos, Kasos, Karpathos and Nysiros.
It is said that at the end of the Troy war, four of Agamemnon’s’ ships wrecked just outside the island. Their crews from Argos and Epidauros stayed in the island and created a settlement named Argos. It was later abandoned and built in the same location the new capital, the current Pothia.
During 5th BC the island became an ally with Athens in the first Athenaeum alliance.
Kalymnos surrendered to Romans in 44BC. But since it had offered help to Rome during the Mythridat wars, it gained some privileges.
At the times of Byzantium many imposing christian churches were built on the remains of ancient temples. In the place of Apollo’s temple was built the church of “Christ of Jerusalem”. According to tradition Saint Helen structured the church when she was returning from Ierosolima after she found the Holy Cross.
Kalymnos was dominated by many conquerors. Venetians, who possessed the island from 1257 to 1277BC, left their traces in the island’s feature and culture. Genevans and the Knights of Saint John Tagma prevailed in the island from 1306 to 1522 when Turkish conquered it.
The Knights built the Castle of Village and Pera Kastro that are saved until our days. Turkish dominance lasted until 1912, when Italians possessed Kalymnos as and all Dodecanese islands.
During Italian possession the residents of Kalymnos resisted against Italians who wanted to close all greek schools. To protest they painted their houses with the colours of our blue-white flag.
Kalymnos adjusted to Greece as all Dodecanese islands in 1948.